1 a tangible symbol signifying approval or distinction; "an award for bravery" [syn: award, accolade, honor, honour]
3 (antiquity) wreath of laurel foliage worn on the head as an emblem of victory [syn: laurel wreath, bay wreath]
The Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae), also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, Laurel, or Bay Tree, is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub reaching 10–18 m tall, native to the Mediterranean region.
The leaves are 6–12 cm long and 2–4 cm broad, with a characteristic finely serrated and wrinkled margin. It is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants; each flower is pale yellow-green, about 1 cm diameter, borne in pairs together beside a leaf. The fruit is a small black berry about 1 cm long, containing a single seed.
Uses and symbolismBay Laurel is the source of the bay leaves which are used for their flavour in cooking. It was also the source of the laurel wreath of ancient Greece, and therefore the expression of "resting on one's laurels". A wreath of bay laurels was given as the prize at the Pythian Games because the games were in honor of Apollo and the laurel was one of his symbols ever since his unsuccessful pursuit of Daphne. In the Bible, the sweet-bay is often an emblem of prosperity and fame. In Christianity it is said to symbolize the Resurrection of Christ and the triumph of Humanity thereby. It is also the source of the word baccalaureate (laurel berry), and of poet laureate. Some evidence from the medical literature supports Bay Laurel having these uses:
In Chinese folklore there is a great laurel tree on the moon, and the Chinese name for the laurel, 月桂, literally translates to "moon-laurel". This is the subject of a story of Wu Gang, a man who aspired to immortality and neglected his work. When the deities discovered this they sentenced Wu Gang to fell the laurel tree, whereupon he could join the ranks of the deities; however, since the laurel regenerated immediately when cut, it could never be felled. The phrase 吴刚伐木 ("Wu Gang felling the tree") is sometimes used to refer to endless toil, analogous to Sisyphus in Greek mythology.
It is also widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in regions with mediterranean or oceanic climates, and as an indoor plant in colder regions.
Bay leaves are eaten by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, for example the Eastern tiger swallowtail (Papilio glaucus).
Chemical constituentsIn the fruit there are essential oils and fatty oils present. The fruit is pressed and water extracted to obtain these products. The fruit contains up to 30% fatty oils and about 1% essential oils (terpenes, sesquiterpenes, alcohols and ketones).
The leaves contain about 1.3 % essential oils (Ol. Lauri folii), consisting of 45 % eucalyptol, 12 % terpenes, 3-4 % sesquiterpenes, 3 % methyleugenol and other α- und β-pinenes, phellandrene, linalool, geraniol and terpineol.
- The National Emblem of Greece consists of a blue escutcheon with a white cross totally surrounded by two laurel branches.
- MeSH: Laurus - Laurus nobilis (Bay Laurel)
- MeSH: 3-oxo-eudesma-1,4(15),11(13)triene-12,6alpha-olide [Substance Name]
- MeSH: anhydroperoxycostunolide [Substance Name]
- MeSH: magnolialide [Substance Name]
- PubMed search: "Laurus"[MAJR]
- PubMed search: "anhydroperoxycostunolide" OR "magnolialide" OR "3-oxo-eudesma-1,4(15),11(13)triene-12,6alpha-olide"
laurels in Bulgarian: Лавър
laurels in Catalan: Llorer
laurels in Czech: Vavřín ušlechtilý
laurels in Danish: Ægte Laurbær
laurels in German: Echter Lorbeer
laurels in Modern Greek (1453-): Δάφνη (φυτό)
laurels in Spanish: Laurus nobilis
laurels in Esperanto: Nobla laŭro
laurels in French: Laurier sauce
laurels in Upper Sorbian: Prawy ławrjenc
laurels in Croatian: Lovor
laurels in Italian: Laurus nobilis
laurels in Hebrew: ער אציל
laurels in Dutch: Laurier
laurels in Japanese: ゲッケイジュ
laurels in Narom: Louothi
laurels in Occitan (post 1500): Laurièr
laurels in Polish: Wawrzyn szlachetny
laurels in Portuguese: Loureiro
laurels in Romanian: Dafin
laurels in Russian: Лавр благородный
laurels in Slovak: Vavrín pravý
laurels in Slovenian: Navadni lovor
laurels in Serbian: Ловор
laurels in Serbo-Croatian: Lovor
laurels in Finnish: Laakeripuu
laurels in Swedish: Lager (växt)
laurels in Vietnamese: Nguyệt quế
laurels in Turkish: Defne
laurels in Chinese: 月桂